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dc.creatorBarisani-Asenbauer, Talin
dc.creatorInić-Kanada, Aleksandra
dc.creatorBelij, Sandra
dc.creatorMarinković, Emilija
dc.creatorLukić, Ivana
dc.creatorMontanaro, Jacqueline
dc.creatorStein, Elisabeth
dc.creatorBintner, Nora
dc.creatorStojanović, Marijana
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-18T10:41:54Z
dc.date.available2021-02-18T10:41:54Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttp://intor.torlakinstitut.com/handle/123456789/393
dc.description.abstractBackground: In a quest for a needle-free vaccine administration strategy, we evaluated the ocular conjunctiva as an alternative mucosal immunization route by profiling and comparing the local and systemic immune responses to the subcutaneous or conjunctival administration of tetanus toxoid (TTd), a model antigen. Materials and methods: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were immunized either subcutaneously with TTd alone or via the conjunctiva with TTd alone, TTd mixed with 2% glycerol or TTd with merthiolate-inactivated whole-cell B. pertussis (wBP) as adjuvants. Mice were immunized on days 0, 7 and 14 via both routes, and an evaluation of the local and systemic immune responses was performed two weeks after the last immunization. Four weeks after the last immunization, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose (2 x LD50) of tetanus toxin. Results: The conjunctival application of TTd in BALB/c mice induced TTd-specific secretory IgA production and skewed the TTd-specific immune response toward a Th1/Th17 profile, as determined by the stimulation of IFN gamma and IL-17A secretion and/or the concurrent pronounced reduction of IL-4 secretion, irrespective of the adjuvant. In conjunctivaly immunized C57BL/6 mice, only TTd administered with wBP promoted the establishment of a mixed Th1/Th17 TTd-specific immune response, whereas TTd alone or TTd in conjunction with glycerol initiated a dominant Th1 response against TTd. Immunization via the conjunctiva with TTd plus wBP adjuvant resulted in a 33% survival rate of challenged mice compared to a 0% survival rate in non-immunized animals (p lt 0.05). Conclusion: Conjunctival immunization with TTd alone or with various adjuvants induced TTd-specific local and systemic immune responses, predominantly of the Th1 type. The strongest immune responses developed in mice that received TTd together with wBP, which implies that this alternative route might tailor the immune response to fight intracellular bacteria or viruses more effectively.en
dc.publisherPublic Library Science, San Francisco
dc.relationLaura Bassi Centers of Expertise (FFG) [822768] - Austrian Research Promotion Agency
dc.relationRepublic of Austria
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Basic Research (BR or ON)/172049/RS//
dc.rightsopenAccess
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourcePLoS One
dc.titleThe Ocular Conjunctiva as a Mucosal Immunization Route: A Profile of the Immune Response to the Model Antigen Tetanus Toxoiden
dc.typearticle
dc.rights.licenseBY
dc.citation.issue4
dc.citation.other8(4)
dc.citation.rankM21
dc.citation.volume8
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0060682
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://intor.torlakinstitut.com/bitstream/id/228/390.pdf
dc.identifier.pmid23637758
dc.identifier.rcubconv_306
dc.identifier.scopus2-s2.0-84876884293
dc.identifier.wos000318343700005
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion


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